Is Maḥram a condition of Hajj being obligatory or a condition of performance?
A woman has enough money to go for Hajj but is unable to travel as she does not have a Maḥram who can accompany her. Later, this money is spent. She now has a Maḥram available to accompany her but she does not have enough money for Hajj. Is Hajj still necessary on the woman?
Is travelling without Maḥram permissible according to Imām Shāfiʿī
Is it true that according to the Shāfiʿī school of thought, it is permissible for a woman to travel without her husband or a Maḥram so long as she travels with a group of women and it is safe to do so?
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم
It is not permissible for a woman to travel a distance of three days without her husband or a Maḥram (unmarriageable kin) (Badāʾiʿ al-Ṣanāʾiʿ, 3: 208). The Prophet ﷺ said, “It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the final day to travel a distance of three nights without a Maḥram [or a husband]” (Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, 1338). According to jurists, the distance of three days travel is 48 Sharʿī miles, which is equivalent to 54.5 English miles (Aḥsan al-Fatāwā, 4: 94). Thus, it is not permissible for a woman to travel more than this distance unless she is accompanied by her husband or a Maḥram. This applies to any form of travel including the journey for obligatory Ḥajj (Tabyīn al-Ḥaqāʾiq, 2: 5).
Allah knows best
24 Jumādā al-Thāniyah 1427 / 20 July 2006
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